Monday, April 21, 2014

Daṇḍa Vaggo 懲罰品

१०. दण्डवग्गो
【10. 懲罰品】




中文翻譯:
凡有情懼怕刀杖【懲罰】,
凡有情之都畏懼死亡,
以自身推度他情之後,
人不應該殺害其他【有情之】,
或唆使眾生被害殺 。

所有眾生懼怕刀杖【懲罰】,
凡有情之都愛惜自命,
以自身推度他情之後,
人不應該殺害其他【有情之】,
或唆使眾生被害殺。

一個人用殘忍與危害的手段
對待同樣尋求安樂的有情之,
這唆使苦難者將不會得安樂。




简体字

所有生物惧怕刀杖【惩罚】,
所有生物都畏惧死亡,
以自身推度他情之後,
人不应该杀害其他【有情之】,
或唆使众生被害杀 。

所有生物惧怕刀杖【惩罚】,
所有生物都爱惜自命,
以自身推度他情之後,
人不应该杀害其他【有情之】,
或唆使众生被害杀。

一个寻求安乐者但使用危害与残忍的手段对待同样寻求安乐的其他有情之,
这惹所痛苦者将不会得安乐。


Sutta Source 【經源】:
तिपिटक (मूल) - सुत्तपिटक - खुद्दकनिकाय - धम्मपद - दण्डवग्गो
Tipiṭaka (mūla) - suttapiṭaka - khuddakanikāya - dhammapada - daṇḍavaggō
三藏 - 經臟 - 小部尼迦耶 - 法句經 - 懲罰品
三藏 - 经藏 - 小部 - 法句经 - 刀杖品



पाळि 【pāḷi】
Terjemahan Bahasa Indonesia
English Translation


English Translation:
This verse consists of three syntactically separate sentences. They are:
Sabbe tasanti dandassa
(everybody trembles at punishment). The subject is the adjective sabbe (all, everybody, nominative plural). The verb is tasanti (tremble, 3rd person, plural, active, indicative, present tense). The object is the noun dandassa (of punishment, genitive singular).

Sabbe bhayanti maccuno
(everybody fears death). The subject is the adjective sabbe (all, everybody, nominative plural). The verb is bhayanti (fear, 3rd person, plural, active, indicative, present tense). The object is the noun maccuno (of death, genitive singular).

Sabbesaj jivitaj piyaj (life is dear to everybody). The subject is the noun jivitaj (life, nominative singular). It has an attribute, the adjective sabbesaj (everybody's, genitive plural). The verb is omitted, implying the verb "to be". The object is the adjective piyaj (dear, nominative singular).

Attanaj upamaj katva na haneyya na ghataye
(having made the comparison with oneself, let one not kill, nor cause another to kill). This can be further subdivided into two segments:
a) attanaj upamaj katva (having made the comparison with oneself). The subject is omitted; the third person singular pronoun is implied. The verb is in gerundive, katva (having done). The object is the noun upamaj (comparison, accusative singular) with its attribute, the adjective/noun attanaj (oneself, accusative singular).
b) na haneyya na ghataye (let one not kill, nor cause another to kill). The subject is omitted; the third person singular pronoun is implied. There are two verbs haneyya (should kill, 3rd person, singular, active, optative) and ghataye (should cause to kill, 3rd person, singular, active, causative, optative). They are both negated by negative particles na (not).

Sukhakamani bhutani yo dandena vihijsati attano sukham esano
(who hurts with a stick beings that desire happiness, searching for happiness himself). The subject is the relative pronoun yo (who, nominative singular). It has an attribute, the medium present participle esano (searching, nominative singular). This word has its own attribute, the noun sukham (happiness, accusative singular) with the noun/pronoun attano (one's own, genitive singular) as an attribute. The noun is vihijsati (hurts, 3rd person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). It has an attribute, the noun dandena (with a stick, instrumental singular). The object is the noun bhutani (beings, accusative plural) with its attribute, the compound sukhakamani (desiring happiness, accusative plural).

Pecca so na labhate sukhaj
(he will not reach happiness after death). The subject is the personal pronoun so (he, nominative singular). The verb is labhate (obtains, reaches, 3rd person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). It is negated by the negative particle na (not). The verb has an attribute, the gerund pecca (having gone over, after death). The object is the noun sukhaj (happiness, accusative singular).


Word Bank:
  • Sabbe: sabba-, Adj.: all, every.
    Nom.Pl.m. = sabbe. 【所有】 Semuanya
    tasanti, V.: tremble, shake, have fear.
    The verb root is tas-.
    3.Pl.act.in.pres. = tasanti. 【懼怕,恐懼; 怕到發抖之意】
    Memiliki rasa takut dan gentar terhadap
  • Dandassa: danda-, N.m.: stick, club, punishment.
    Gen.Sg. = dandassa.
    【刀杖;凶器。用來打人或懲罰犯罪者: 懲罰、處罰】 Benda buat memukul; Hukuman.
  • Bhayanti, V.: fear. The verb root is bhi-.
    3.Pl.act.in.pres. = bhayanti.
    【畏懼,害怕】 Takut
  • Maccuno: maccu-, N.m.: death.
    Gen.Sg. = maccuno. 【死亡】 Kematian
  • attanaj: attan-, N.m.: self, oneself.
    Acc.Sg. = attanaj = attano.
    【自己,自我,本身,自身: 自己的命】 Diri sendiri
  • Jivitaj: jivita-, N.n.: life.
    It is derived from the verb root jiv- (to live).
    Nom.Sg. = jivitaj. 【有生命的,有情的生物】 kehidupan; makluk hidup
  • piyaj: piya-, Adj.: dear, beloved, pleasant. Nom.Sg.n. = piyaj.
    【珍重; 愛惜】 Menyayangi; menjaga serta menyayangi
  • Sukhakamani: sukhakama-, Adj.: desiring happiness.
    It is a compound of:
    sukha-, N.n.: happiness. 【快樂】 Bahagia
    kama-, N.m.: wish, desire. 【希望,欲望】 Keinginn
    Acc.Pl.n. = sukhakamani.
    【期待快樂: 很希望能快樂】 Ingin bahagia
  • Bhutani: bhuta-, N.n.: being, creature.
    Acc.Pl. = bhutani.
    【眾生; 有情的; 生命的】 Makluk hidup
  • yo: yad-, Rel.Pron.: that which. Nom.Sg.m. = yo.
    vihijsati, V.: hurts. The verb root is hijs- (to hurt)
    with the prefix vi- (intensifying sense).
    3.Sg.act.in.pres. = vihijsati. 【傷害;害;酷刑】 Melukai / menyiksa.


List of Abbreviations
upamaj: upama-, N.f.: comparison, example. Acc.Sg. = upamaj. 【推...及...; 推度;做個比率;反省】
katva, V.ger.: having done. The verb root is kar- (to do). 【實行,做】
na, neg.: not. 【別, 不要】
haneyya, V.: should kill. The verb root is han-. 3.Sg.ac.opt. = haneyya. 【該殺害;攻擊;傷害:損傷與殘害】
ghataye, V.: should cause to kill.
It is a causative from the root han- (to strike 擊傷, to beat 打擊).
3.Sg.act.caus.opt. = ghataye.
【唆使他人殺害有生命的;讓別的生物或別人惹禍害】
sukham: sukha-, N.n.: happiness. Acc.Sg. = sukham. 【歡樂: 幸福快樂】
esano: asana-, Adj.: searching, striving for. It is an med.pr.p.
of the verb esati (to search, to strive for).
The verb root is is- (to wish) with the prefix a- (towards). Nom.Sg.m. = esano. 【尋找; 渴望; 期待】
pecca, V.ger.: after death. It is a ger. of the verb i- (to go)
with the prefix pa- (directional prefix of forward motion).
This verb means literally "to go over", it is used as an euphemism for "to die".【死後: 來世;下輩子】
so: tad-, Pron.n.: it. Nom.Sg.m. = so. 【這個; 那個】
labhate, V.: obtains, gets. The verb root is labh-. 3.Sg.med.in.pres. = labhate.【獲得; 得到】





Mallikāsuttaṃ

‘‘सब्बा दिसा अनुपरिगम्म चेतसा,
नेवज्झगा पियतरमत्तना क्वचि।
एवं पियो पुथु अत्ता परेसं,
तस्मा न हिंसे परमत्तकामो’’ति॥

即使一個人用心照遍十方的任何角落, 都尋不到一個愛他人的程度超過於愛自命的人。
同理,十方所有眾生也珍惜自命超過他人; 因此,願自我得到安樂的人不應該傷害凡有生命的。
【相應部 1-75】

"Sabbā disā anuparigamma cetasā,
Nevajjhagā piyataramattanā kvaci;
Evaṃ piyo puthu attā paresaṃ,
Tasmā na hiṃse paramattakāmo"ti.

即使一个人用心找遍十方的任何角落,也找不到一个自己爱他的程度超过于爱自己的人。
同理,十方所有众生爱他们自己超过爱别人; 因此,愿自己得到安乐的人不应伤害凡有情之。
【相应部 1-75】

Have sought through all directions for one who can love more than his self, but in vain. Every being love their life most. So, Every one who love their life should therefore not violate others [who also love their life].

“Apabila seseorang mengarungi segala penjuru dunia untuk mencari yang lebih mencintai yang lainnya
lebih dari pada dirinya sendiri, semua itu hanya kesiasiaan saja. Semuanya menyayangi dirinya sendiri lebih dari apapun.
maka dari itu, bagi yang mencintai hidupnya [dirinya], janganlah [ia] mencelakai yang lain."


Verse Source 【偈源】:
तिपिटक (मूल) - सुत्तपिटक - संयुत्तनिकाय - सगाथावग्ग - कोसलसंयुत्तं - मल्लिकासुत्तं
Tipiṭaka (Mūla) - Suttapiṭaka - Saṃyuttanikāya – Sagāthāvagga - Kosalasaṃyuttaṃ - Mallikāsuttaṃ







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