Wednesday, October 16, 2013

Khantivādī Jātaka - Outstanding Story Of Patience, Fearlessly Facing The Coming Death, He's The Boddhisatta!

This story is told by the Lord while dwelling in Jetavana,

At that time, there was a grumpy monk. Bhagavant asks this monk,
"Why after being ordained as a student of the Buddha
whose the teachings doesn't recognizing what anger is,
But you even show anger? Sages in the past,
even though suffering a thousand times of lashes,
even if their hand, feet, ears and nose were cut off,
show no anger to anyone."


Then, Lord tell a story occurred in the past time:

Once upon a time a king of Kāsi named Kalābu reigned at Benares. At that time the Bodhisatta came to life in a brahmin family endowed with eighty crores of treasure, in the form of a youth named Kuṇḍaka kumāra. And when he was of age, he acquired a knowledge of all the sciences at Takkasilā and afterwards settled down as a householder.

On the death of his parents, looking at his pile of treasure he thought: "My kinsmen who amassed this treasure are all gone without taking it with them: now it is for me to own it and in my turn to depart." Then he carefully selected persons, who by virtue of their almsgiving deserved it, and gave all his wealth to them, and entering the Himālaya country he adopted the ascetic life. There he dwelt a long time, living on wild fruits. And descending to the inhabited parts for the sake of procuring salt and vinegar he gradually made his way to Benares, where he took up his abode in the royal park. Next day he went his rounds in the city for alms, till he came to the door of the commander-in-chief. And he being pleased with the ascetic for the propriety of his deportment, brought him into the house and fed him with the food prepared for himself. And having gained his consent he got him to take up his abode in the royal park.

Now one day king Kalābu being inflamed with strong drink came into the park in great pomp, surrounded by a company of dancers. Then he had a couch spread on the royal seat of stone, and lay with his head on the lap of a favourite of the harem, while the nautch girls who were skilful in vocal and instrumental music and in dancing provided a musical entertainment—So great was his magnificence, like to that of Sakka, Lord of heaven—And the king fell asleep. Then the women said, "He for whose sake we are providing music, is gone to sleep. What need is there for us to sing?" Then they cast aside their lutes and other musical instruments

Hither and thither, and set out for the garden, where tempted on by the flowers and fruit-bearing shrubs they were soon disporting themselves.

At this moment the Bodhisatta was seated in this garden, like a royal elephant in the pride of his vigour, at the foot of a flowering Sāl tree, enjoying the bliss of retirement from the world. So these women in wandering about came upon him and said, "Come hither, ladies, and let us sit down and hear somewhat from the priest who is resting at the foot of this tree, until the king awakes." Then they went and saluted him and sitting in a circle round about him, they said, "Tell us something worth hearing." So the Bodhisatta preached the doctrine to them.

Meanwhile the royal favourite with a movement of her body woke up the king. And the king on waking up, and not seeing the women asked, "Where are those wretches gone?" "Your Highness," she said, "they are gone away and are sitting in attendance on a certain ascetic." The king in a rage seized his sword and went off in haste, saying, "I will give this false ascetic a lesson."

Then those of the women that were most in favour, when they saw the king coming in a rage, went and took the sword from the king's hand and pacified him. Then he came and stood by the Bodhisatta and asked:

"What doctrine are you preaching, Monk?"
"The doctrine of patience, Your Majesty," he replied.
"What is this patience?" said the king.
"The not being angry, when men abuse you and strike you and revile you."
Said the king: "I will see now the reality of your patience," then summoned his executioner.

The executioner in the way of his office took an axe and a scourge of thorns, and clad in a yellow robe and wearing a red garland, came and saluted the king and said, "What is your pleasure, Sire?"
"Take and drag off this vile rogue of an ascetic," said the king,
"and throwing him on the ground, with your lash of thorns scourge him before and behind and on both sides, and give him two thousand stripes." This was done.

The Bodhisatta's skins were cut through to the flesh, and the blood flowed.

The king again asked, "What doctrine do you preach, Monk?"
"The doctrine of patience, Your Highness," he replied.
"You fancy that my patience is only skin deep. It is not skin deep, but is fixed deep within my heart, where it cannot be seen by you, Sire."

Again the executioner asked, "What is your pleasure, Sire?"
The king said, "Cut off both the hands of this false ascetic."

So he took his axe, and placing the victim within the fatal circle,
he cut off both his hands. Then the king said, "Off with his feet,"
The executioner cut off the Bodhisatta’s feet.
His feet were chopped off, and the blood flowed from 
the extremities of his hands and feet like lac juice from a leaking jar.

Again the king asked Bodhisatta what doctrine you preached.
"The doctrine of patience, Your Highness," he replied.
"You imagine, Sire, that my patience dwells in the extremities of my hands and feet.
It is not there, but it is deep seated somewhere else."

The king said, "Cut off his nose and ears."
The executioner did what king command.

His whole body was now covered with blood. Again the king asked of his doctrine.
And the ascetic said,
"Think not that my patience is seated in the tips of my nose and ears.
My patience is deep seated within my heart."

Then the king said,
"Lie down, false Monk, and thence exalt your patience."
And so saying, he struck the Bodhisatta 
above the heart with his foot, and betook himself off.

When he was gone, the commander-in-chief wiped off the blood from the body of the Bodhisatta, putting bandages on the extremities of his hands, feet, ears and nose, and then having gently placed him on a seat, he saluted him and sitting on one side he said, "If, Reverend Sir, you would be angry with one who has sinned against you, be angry with the king, but with no one else."

And making this request, The commander repeated the first stanza:
Whoso cut off thy nose and ear, and lopped off foot and hand,
With him be wroth, heroic soul, but spare, we pray, this land.


The Bodhisatta on hearing this, with full of compassion then gently uttered:

यो मे हत्थे च पादे च, कण्णनासञ्च छेदयि।
चिरं जीवतु सो राजा, न हि कुज्झन्ति मादिसा॥
Yo me hatthe ca pāde ca, kaṇṇanāsañca chedayi;
Ciraṃ jīvatu so rājā, na hi kujjhanti mādisā.

Word bank
  1. Yo = whosoever 【哪位,誰,任何】 siapapun
  2. Me = my, me, mine 【吾,我,我的】 aku, milik ku, -ku
  3. Hatthe - hattha = forearm – hands 【手臂,前臂】 tangan
  4. Ca = and 【以及,和】 dan
  5. Pāde – pada = feet 【腳】 kaki
  6. Kaṇṇa = ears【耳朵】 telinga
  7. Nāsa = nose【鼻子】hidung
  8. Chedayi = cut off, being broken, destructed 【被切掉,被毀壞】 dipotong
  9. Ciraṃ = for a long time 【長久,悠久,長期】 waktu yang lama
  10. Jīvatu = having + adj [ciraṃ] + life, alive, having life 【生命,壽命】 hidup
  11. Ciraṃ jīvatu = having long life, having longevity 【擁有長壽】 memiliki umur panjang
  12. So = he 【他;那位】 ia
  13. Rājā = King 【國王】Raja
  14. na hi = certainly not 【的確沒有】 sama sekali tidak
  15. kujjhanti – kujjhanta = being angry 【使我怒氣】 menjadi marah
  16. mādisā – mādisa = one like me 【一位像我的人; 如我】 orang seperti-ku

based on Pali language, direct translation:
“Long live to the king, he who had cut off
these hands, feet, ears and nose.
the one like me never get angry”

Other translation:
“Long live the king, whose cruel hand my body thus has marred,
Pure souls like mine such deeds as these with anger ne’er regard.”

Just as the king was leaving the garden and at the very moment when be passed out of the range of the Bodhisatta's vision, the mighty earth that is two hundred and forty thousand leagues in thickness split in two, like unto a strong stout cloth garment, and a flame issuing forth from Avīci seized upon the king, wrapping him up as it were with a royal robe of scarlet burning wool.

Thus did the king sink into the earth just by the garden gate and was firmly fixed in the great Hell of Avīci. And the Bodhisatta died on that same day. And the king's servants and the citizens came with fragrances, wreaths and incense in their hands to show deep respect and performed the Bodhisatta's obsequies. Some people in that crowd said that the Bodhisatta had gone straight back to the Himālayas.
But in this they said the thing that was not [The ascetic went to Heaven in Brahma Realm, born as a Brahma].

[Then Lord says these phrase towards the bhikkhus
about the event occured in that past time as the conclusion]:

A saint of old, as men have told,
Great courage did display:
That saint so strong to suffer wrong
The Kāsi king did slay.

Alas! the debt of vain regret
That king will have to pay;
When doomed to dwell in lowest Hell,
Long will he rue the day.


The Master, Our Lord Buddha, his lesson ended, revealed the Truths and identified:
—At the conclusion of the Truths the choleric Brother
attained fruition of the Second Path,
while many others attained fruition of the First Path—

"At that time Devadatta was Kalābu king of Kāsi,
Sāriputta was the Commander-in-Chief,
and I myself was the Ascetic,
the Preacher of Patience."

After hearing Lord's experience story, the grumpy monk realizing the beauty of Patience and virtuous,
the heart's purified and attained Anagami. and much has steadiness heart in patience and attain Sotapanna.









Tipitaka source 【經源】:
तिपिटक - सुत्तपिटक - खुद्दकनिकाय - जातक १ - चतुक्कनिपातो - ३१३. खन्तीवादीजातकं (४-२-३)
Tipiṭaka - Suttapiṭaka - Khuddakanikāya - Jātaka 1 - Catukkanipāto - 313. Khantīvādījātakaṃ (4-2-3)
三藏經 – 藏經 – 小尼迦耶 – 本生經 – 第四集經 – 313忍辱行者經
大藏经 – 藏经 – 小部经 – 本生经 – 第四章 – 313堪忍宗本生经



Note:
[Brahma is not god, but higher being than God, because God or great Deity [as written in some scriptures of some beliefs in Near East region], God still has a wicked intention such as hatred, wrath, jealousy, angry, even try to whisper human to do evil deed such as killing others when men worshiping other God other than Him. But Brahma is different than God. they are more perfect than God, pure heart. They don't go into war, they don't have man kind desires, but their heart filled with kindness and compassion. not the least of them attain arhatship in that realm. He is the one, a heavenly being who cultivate appreciative joy at someone who do virtuous deed, His heart is still, equanimity and firm to the goodness, not the opposites like God do].



Pali text, click here 【巴利文】
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